Blog Questions
Moon Phases:
  1. What causes moon phases?
  2. Include a diagram that shows the moon phases and includes ½ lit moons as well as what we see from Earth.
  3. Explain why it takes 27.3 days for the moon to orbit and 29.5 days for the moon to complete the moon phase cycle. Include a diagram.

Eclipses:
  1. What causes solar eclipses?
  2. Include a diagram that shows the sun, moon and earth arrangement
  3. Include images of partial, annular and total eclipses and explain why they occur
  4. What causes lunar eclipses?
  5. Include a diagram that shows the sun, moon and earth arrangement
  6. Include images of partial and total eclipses and explain why they occur
  7. Include a diagram and explanation of why we do not have eclipses every full and new moon.

Daily and Monthly Tides
  1. What are daily tides?
  2. What causes daily tides?
  3. Include a diagram that show how daily tides form
  4. Explain why high and low tides occur at a different time each day.
  5. What are monthly tides? Explain Spring and Neap tides in detail
  6. What causes monthly tides?
  7. Include a diagram that shows Neap and Spring tides

Seasons:
  1. What causes the Earth to have seasons?
  2. Include a seasons diagram that shows the sun in the middle and the Earth revolving around it.
  3. Explain what the winter solstice is, where the sun is directly overhead and when it occurs.
  4. Explain what the summer solstice is, where the sun is directly overhead and when it occurs.
  5. Explain what equinoxes are, give the dates and where the sun is directly over head.
  6. Explain what direct and indirect heating of the Earth means.
  7. Include a diagram that shows direct and indirect heating.

Geologic Time:
  1. Explain what geologic time is:
    1. How old is the Earth?
    2. What are the six major events outlined?
    3. Explain the analogy to a book
      1. How many pages are in the book?
      2. How long would it take to read the book?
      3. How long would the book be in terms of miles?
  2. What is the law of Superposition?
  3. How can you use rock layers and fossils to understand Relative time.
  4. Include diagrams to illustrate each of your points.

Drifting Continents and Block Diagrams:
  1. How many times has the East Coast of North America collided with another landmass in the last 500 million years?
    1. What landmasses have collided with North America?
    2. How fast do landmasses move?
    3. What happens when landmasses collide?
  2. Where was North America located from 500 million years ago until sometime after about 300 million years ago?
    1. What evidence do we have for this?
  3. How have the positions and sizes of the landmasses (continents) changed over the past 500 million years? Explain how they have moved over time…
  4. Have there ever been oceans or seas covering New York? When?
  5. What are the Taconic Island Arc, Avalon, and the Eastern Iapetus Ocean?
  6. Define and include a diagram for each of the following Terms:
    1. Subduction
    2. Orogeny
    3. Delta
    4. Pangaea
    5. Rifting
Rock Cycle and Sedimentary Rocks:

  1. Explain how Igneous, Metamorphic and Sedimentary Rocks Form
    1. Explain that igneous rocks are evidence of past volcanic activity
    2. Explain that sedimentary rocks are evidence of Erosion of Mountains
    3. Explain that Metamorphic Rocks are evidence of Mountain Building
  2. Show a rock cycle diagram
  3. On the block diagram below explain where igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks would form. Block 40.jpg
  4. Explain how clastic sedimentary rocks form.
    1. Describe the differences between shale and conglomerate
  5. Explain how organic sedimentary rocks form.
    1. Under what conditions does limestone form?
  6. Explain how chemical sedimentary rocks form.
  7. Explain the process of deposition, compaction and cementation in forming a clastic sedimentary rock.

Weathering :
  1. Explain what weathering is and what role it plays in the rock cycle.
  2. Explain what mechanical weathering is and give examples with pictures of release of pressure, ice wedging, abrasion, plant roots, and animal actions.
  3. Explain what chemical weathering is and explain how water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, living organisms and acid rain contribute to weathering. Show pictures of and explain two examples of chemical weathering.
  4. Explain why the type of rock and the climate are the two most important factors in determining the rate of chemical weathering.
  5. Thinking back on the crayon lab explain how this lab modeled physical weathering and the steps necessary for creating a sedimentary rock.
Erosion:
  1. Explain how water, wind, ice and gravity are the major agents of erosion on the planet (see pages 246-249) and give examples of each.
  2. Focusing in on water erosion write a quick story about a sand grain being weathered from a rock high up in the mountains and traveling downstream to a river delta. Include the terms: Drainage basin, V-shaped valley, tributary, waterfall, alluvial fan, delta, floodplain, meander, cut-banks, point bars, oxbow lakes, bedload, suspended load and dissolved load, old, mature and young river. Be sure to include pictures from your trip and name your sand grain.
  3. Explain how we learned about rivers and erosion in the stream tables and stream table modeling lab.
CONTINENTAL DRIFT THEORY AND SUPPORTING EVIDENCE
1. Explain the theory of continental drift in a paragraph. Discuss the overall theory itself, Pangea, Gondwanaland, Laurasia, and the scientist who devised the theory.
A. Include a picture of Pangea as it existed ~220 MYA
2. Explain how fossils are evidence of continental drift. Use 2-3 specific examples of fossils from the maps and diagrams we examined in class to show how fossils are evidence for continental drift.
A. Inclue a map/diagram that shows fossil evidence for Pangea similar to the ones we looked at in class and fo homework
3. Explain how glaciers are evidence for continental drift. Be sure to name specific locations/continents where glacial evidence has been found and explain how/why it supports the theory
A. Include a supporting image/map that shows glacial deposits as evidence for Pangea
4. Explain how mountain ranges are evidence for continental drift. Look at your diagrams from classwork/homework and name locations where mountains have formed as a result of the formation of Pangea. Be sure to explain how these mountains support the theory.
A. Include a supporting image/map that shows mountain ranges as evidence for Pangea
5. Explain how coal beds are evidence for continental drift. Make sure you explain how/what environment coal forms from. Explain how the locations of coal beds supports continental drift theory.
A. Include a supporting image/map that shows coal beds as evidence for Pangea
6. Explain why Continental Drift Theory was rejected at first.


INTERIOR OF THE EARTH

1. Explain in the first paragraph a brief description of the four MAIN Layers of the Interior of the Earth. In this paragraph you should also include an explanation of how temperature, pressure and density all change as you go from the crust deeper all the way to the inner core
A. Include a diagram that shows the four main layers of the Earth
B. Include a diagram or graph that shows how temperature changes as you go deeper
C. Include a diagram or graph that shows how pressure changes as you go deeper
D. Include a diagram or graph that shows how density changes as you go deeper
2. Explain in a brief paragraph the Earth and it's layers but now include the locations of the lithosphere and the asthenosphere. Describe each layer as one of the following - solid, liquid, or solid but able to flow.

A. Include a diagram that shows the layers of the Earth that includes the lithosphere and asthenosphere

3. Write a 3 sentence description of the Earth's crust. Include in your description a comparison between oceanic crust and continental crust. You can discuss the composition of the crust, thickness, density, temperature etc.

A. Include a diagram which shows oceanic and continental crust (if you google "oceanic vs. continental crust" you should get some good diagrams which show both of them and their thickness relative to eachother)

4. Write a short paragraph which includes a description of the Earth's lithosphere and also the Earth's asthenosphere. Describe each one separately and then compare and contrast the two to each other.
A Include a diagram which shows both the lithosphere and asthenosphere.

5. Write a brief description of the Earth's mantle (3 sentences). Include in your description a discussion of the mantle's properties and composition. Also discuss the mantle's role in creating convection currents and how this causes the plates to move.

A. Include a diagram of "convection currents in the mantle"

6. Write a short paragraph which compares and contrasts the outer core and the inner core. Consider in your comparison the properties and composition of each layer compared to the other layer.

A. Include a diagram which shows both the inner core and the outer core of the Earth

7. Explain how the Earth's core (outer, inner or both) is responsible for creating Earth's Magnetic Field. You should also include the role of Earth's Magnetic Field.

A. Include a diagram of the Earth's Magnetic Field

8. Discuss the pros and cons of two models of the Earth we used in class (tennis ball, ping pong ball, egg or orange)

Remember to consider exceeding the expectations by including something else you discovered about the interior of the Earth or some short video clip about the layers of the Earth that is really useful.

THEORY OF SEAFLOOR SPREADING TOPICS

1. Explain the theory of seafloor spreading in your introduction paragraph (4-5 sentences). Describe what mid-ocean ridges are and where they are located. Be sure to discuss the role of mid-ocean ridges in the theory of seafloor spreading. Connect seafloor spreading theory to continental drift and plate tectonics
a. Include a diagram of seafloor spreading
b. Include a map showing the location of mid-ocean ridges
c. You should also include a link to the animation of seafloor spreading that you watched to do HW #8 here so we can see how this process works.
2. Explain how molten material erupting from the ridge is supporting evidence of seafloor spreading
a. Include a picture of pillow lava or pillow basalt erupting along the mid-ocean ridge
3. Explain how the age of the seafloor is supporting evidence of seafloor spreading
a. Include a diagram or map which shows the age of the seafloor on either side of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
4. Explain how magnetic stripes of the seafloor are evidence of seafloor spreading
a. Include a diagram showing the magnetic stripes along the seafloor
b. You should also include a link to the animation showing the magnetic stripes you used in HW #8 so we can see the magnetism of the seafloor as evidence for it's spreading.
5. Explain the role of subduction and deep-ocean trenches with plate tectonics theory.
a. Include a diagram which shows the process of subduction at deep ocean trenches
6. Based on your knowledge of seafloor spreading explain the role of the mid-atlantic ridge in plate tectonics theory. Explain the role of this ridge in particular with the separation of the continents.
a. Include a map/diagram of the Mid -Atlantic Ridge
7. Explain the simple paper strip model you used to illustrate the process of seafloor spreading and subduction. Explain what the paper strip represents, what the slits represent, what the colors represent, and what the pattern on the strips represents.


PLATE TECTONICS THEORY



1. Explain in an opening paragraph of 4-5 sentences Plate Tectonics theory. In your explanation be sure to discuss the number of plates, what plates are composed, and a summary of the movement of plates (how fast they move, what moves them, etc.) In this paragraph you should also list all of the evidence (features and events) for tectonic plate boundaries and movement.

a. Include a map that shows Earth's tectonic plates

2. Explain convergent (continental crust - continental crust) plate boundaries. Be sure to include the type of plate motion, the features that form along this boundary, and the events that form along this type of boundary

a. Include a diagram (not a photo) of this type of plate boundary

b. Include a picture of the Himalayas as an example of a modern day continental convergent boundary

3. Explain convergent (continental vs oceanic crust) plate boundary. Be sure to include the type of plate motion, the features that form along this boundary, and the events that form along this type of boundary

a. Include a diagram (not a photo) of this type of plate boundary

b. Include a picture or map of the Andes Mountains in South America as an example of a modern day oceanic-continental boundary.

4. Explain convergent (oceanic vs oceanic crust) plate boundary. Be sure to include the type of plate motion, the features that form along this boundary, and the events that form along this type of boundary

a. Include a diagram (not a photo) of this type of plate boundary

b. Include a picture or map of Japan, the Aleutian Islands in Alaska, and the Philippines as examples of modern day oceanic-oceanic convergent plate boundaries

5. Explain divergent plate boundaries.Be sure to include the type of plate motion, the features that form along this boundary, and the events that form along this type of boundary

a. Include a diagram (not a photo) of this type of plate boundary

b. Include a picture or map of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

6. Explain transform plate boundaries. Be sure to include the type of plate motion, the features that form along this boundary, and the events that form along this type of boundary

a. Include a diagram (not a photo) of this type of plate boundary

b. Include a picture or map of the San Andreas Fault in California as an example of a modern day transform plate boundary

7. Explain in your closing paragraph how earthquakes and volcanoes are evidence for tectonic plate boundaries. In your closing you should also discuss what the Ring of Fire is and include an explanation for the large number of volcanoes and earthquakes along the Ring of Fire

a. Include a map that shows worldwide earthquakes and volcanoes plotted onto it as your diagram for this paragraph


Density:

1. What is density? Explain this in your own words and include a diagram that shows two diagrams one with a higher density and one with a lower density.

2. What is the formula for density? Explain the broken heart memory tool.

3. Explain how the calculate the volume of a Cube using LxWxH for the volume. Explain each step and include an image of a cube maybe even with measurements shown.

4. Explain how to calculate volume using water displacement. Show an image like the graduated cylinders sheet we used in class. Be sure to explain the meniscus and how to read it accurately by reading the bottom of the smiley face.

5. Explain how the calculate the density of a rock using water displacement. Outline each step and include a diagram.

6. Explain the mystery liquids lab

7. Explain and include a diagram of the density bottles lab. You can use this link to get an image to include: http://www.teachersource.com/product/poly-density-kit/density

8. Explain how the lava lamp worked and include an image.

Elements, Compounds, mixtures, chemical and physical changes
1. Define and give 3 examples of elements. Include a picture and chemical formula for each.2. Define and give 3 examples of compounds. Include a picture and chemical formula for each.3. Define and give 3 examples of mixtures. One example must be a solution like salt water. Include a picture of each.4. Explain the difference between a compound and a mixture. Use the terms physically combined vs. Chemically combined.5. Explain how we used legos to demonstrate this.6. Explain the baking soda and vinegar experiment in terms of reactants and products. Include all the chemical formulas and how the mass was conserved in the experiment but the atoms were rearranged to form new chemicals. Be sure to also include the observations you made.7. Explain how chemical changes are different than physical changes and give examples.
Minerals, Igneous, Metamorphic, Sedimentary Rocks, The rock cycle

1. Explain that the Earth is made up of rocks, rocks are made up of minerals, minerals are made up of compounds and elements, compounds are made up of elements, elements are made up of atoms and atoms are made up of protons, neutrons and electrons. Find a picture diagram or set of pictures and diagrams to illustrate this point.
2. Define a mineral listing the five characteristics of a mineral. Give an example of three minerals and give their formula and a picture of each.
3. Explain how igneous rocks are formed and explain the difference between intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks. Give examples of each. Also explain the difference between magma and lava. Include pictures and diagrams.
4. Explain how metamorphic rocks are formed and explain the difference between foliated and non-foliated metamorphic rocks. Give examples of each. Include pictures and diagrams.
5. Explain how sedimentary rocks are formed and explain the different between clastic, chemical and organic rocks. Give an examples of each. Include pictures and diagrams.
6. Find and image of the rock cycle that you really like and explain how the rock cycle works being sure to focus on how any rock can become any other type of rock given time and place. Also be sure to explain the processes required for these changes.
7. Explain any labs or activities we did to illustrate these points. Focus especially on the rock cycle game and cartoon activity.
Faults and Stresses
1. Explain and illustrate tension, compression and shearing. Include a diagram or animation for each and explain which type of plate boundary this stress occurs on. What are the convection cells doing in the mantle to create this type of stress.?
2. Explain Normal, Reverse and Strike-slip faults. Include a diagram or animation for each and explain which type of plate boundary this fault occurs on. What are the convection cells doing in the mantle to create this type of faulting. Also list which stress type causes each type of fault.
3. Include a diagram which clearly shows which is the hanging wall and which is the footwall.
4. Explain what synclines and anticlines are and include a labeled diagram of each.
5. See if you can find a short video which explains stresses and/or faults.
6. Explain why there are transform faults cutting across the mid-ocean ridge. Include a diagram.
Volcanoes and Lava**
1. Explain what cinder, shield and composite volcanoes are and include a diagram, picture and short video of each erupting.
2. Explain what a rift or fissure eruption is and include a diagram and short video.
3. Explain and show pillow lavas erupting along with a picture.
4. Explain how columnar basalts, pumice, volcanic bombs and obsidian form and include a picture of each.
5. Explain what causes a volcano to have explosive eruptions and what causes a volcano to have quiet eruptions.
6. Explain how Aa and Pahoe hoe are different and the same include images of each.
7. Explain how and why the geothermal features of Yellowstone form. Include a diagram.
8. Explain geysers, hotsprings, mudpots and fumaroles. Include a diagram, animation and/or video of each feature.